If the casualty becomes unconscious, follow the steps below:
Step 1: Position the casualty
- Support and position the casualty lying on his back on a firm flat surface
Step 2: Shout for Help
- Ask someone to call ambulance 995 and bring an AED
Step 3: Start 30 Chest Compression
- Locate the landmark and perform 30 chest compression using the same location and techniques used for chest compressions in CPR.
Step 4: Open the Airway
- Perform the Head-Tilt, Chin-lift maneuver to open the airway.
- While maintaining head tilt, open the mouth gently to check for visible foreign
- If a foreign body is seen, maintain the open airway with the Head-Tilt, Chin-Lift maneuver and insert the index finger of your other hand into the casualty’s mouth along the inside of the cheek.
- Use a hooking action to dislodge the foreign body and maneuver it out of the mouth. Take care not to force the foreign body deeper into the throat. This maneuver is known as the finger sweep
- For First Aiders: Continue chest compression if nothing seen in the mouth.
For BCLS+AED Providers – Step 5: Mouth to Mouth Ventilation
- Attempt one ventilation by performing mouth-to-mouth breathing (1st ventilation).
- If there is no resistance, airway is clear. Check for normal breathing and pulse, and if absent, start CPR.
- If there is resistance (i.e. the chest does not rise), the airway may be blocked. Reposition the casualty’s head with the Head-Tilt, Chin-Lift maneuver and re-attempt to ventilate (2nd ventilation).
For BCLS+AED Providers -Step 6 – Chest Compression
- If there is resistance (i.e. the chest does not rise), perform 30 chest compressions using the same location and techniques as in CPR.
- Perform the Head-Tilt, Chin-Lift maneuver and check for the presence of any foreign
- Repeat Steps 4 to 6 until help arrives and takes over or the casualty starts breathing, coughing, talking or moving
For Trained-Healthcare Provider
Check for normal breathing and
- If normal breathing or pulse are absent or you are unsure, start CPR 30:2.
- If pulse is present and normal breathing is absent, perform rescue breathing at a rate of 12 breaths per minute (one breath every 5 seconds) by giving one breath and counting 2-a-thousand, 3-a-thousand, 4-a-thousand, 5-a- thousand.
- Repeat the sequence until you have completed a total of 12 breaths. Re-assess for normal breathing and
- If both the breathing and pulse are present, position the casualty in the recovery
- Continue to monitor the casualty’s breathing and pulse continuously as these can stop suddenly.